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Postmodernism and the Value Crisis of the European Historical Science (№ 3, 2015)
The article analyzes causes and consequences of the shift towards postmodernism in Europe’s historiography against a background of social and political trends in Europe in the late 20th-early 21stcentury. The text focuses on the crisis of values in European studies of history, and, above all, the philosophy of history, which has been driven by postmodernism to eschew classical positivist notions of objectivity and validity as the fundamental values of historical knowledge. Consequently, leading European historical methodologists have arrived at the conclusion that historical science is predominantly aimed at reaching and maintaining public consensus on various political trends. The state of affairs in the 20th century impelled European historians to search for the roots of the European unity.
Keywords: Postmodernism, Philosophy of History, Historical Science of Europe, Historiography, Memory, Microhistory, Linguistic Shift.
The Slogan “Russia for Russians” in Conservative Thought in the Second Half of the XIX Century (№ 4, 2015)
The article studies the origin of the slogan “Russia for Russians” and its conservative interpretations in the second half of the XIX century. The study is based on numerous works, most of which have never been previously used. The author analyzes the attitude to the slogan “Russia for Russians” of well-known conservatives, such as Emperor Alexander III, V. Skaryatin, I. Aksakov, M. Katkov, M. Skobelev, S. Syromyatnikov, V. Rozanov, A. Suvorin and others.
Keywords: “Russia for Russians”, Russian Conservatism, Russian Nationalism, Pan-Slavism, Emperor Alexander III.
Europe: Sovereignty, Cultural Identity and the Future of Civilization (№ 3, 2015)
The article dwells on the issue of fading political subjectivity, sovereignty and ethno-cultural identity of the European civilization. The author believes that Europe has entered the fourth and final stage of the developmental cycle it proclaimed – the Era of Global Cities, and draws historical parallels between the modern community of Celtic-Romano-Germanic peoples and in the ancient world of the Ist century BC – the Vth century BC.
Keywords: Sovereignty, Ethnic and Cultural Identity, Europe, USA, Civilization, Atlanticism, Russia, External Proletariat, Internal Proletariat, Urban Stage of the Formation Cycle.
Russia’s Shift to Conservatism from the Global Historical Perspective of Fernand Braudel (№ 3, 2015)
The author expresses doubt about the validity of possible predictions, while pointing to reasons for the current civilizational split in the West. While analyzing possible splits and alliances among civilizations, he appeals to the thesis of Fernand Braudel, which runs as follows: “A civilization does not deserve the name if it does not eschew something, if it does not reject something.” The author argues that by defending traditional values, modern Russia lives up to the criterion of rejection, and supposes that conservatives in the West will be perceived as pro-Russian, as their vision of an individual coincides with the one promoted and cherished in Russia.
Keywords: Civilization, Traditional Values, Russia and West.
The Crisis in State-Church Relations and Church Conservatism in the First Half of the XIX Century (№ 4, 2015)
The article deals with state-church relations in the first half of the XIX century. At that time, the conservative wing of the Russian clergy opposed the religious reforms. A series of individual statements was followed by the emergence of the Russian Orthodox opposition movement. Fierce political struggle resulted in the victory of the conservative clergy.
Keywords: State, Church, Conservatism, Clergy, Political Struggle, Freemasonry, Orthodoxy, Christianity, Religious Literature.
“Modern Non-Feudal Monarchy”: Russian Conservative Press Searching for National Ideology in the Late 19th Century (№ 4, 2015)
The article classifies and analyzes different forms of Russian conservative nationalism in the late 19th century: M. Katkov’s bureaucratic nationalism, late Slavophiles’ liberal nationalism, R. Fadeev and V. Meshchersky’s aristocratic conservatism, T. Filippov’s orthodox traditionalism, K. Leontiev’s conservative romanticism, and L. Tikhomirov’s neo-conservatism.
Keywords: Conservatism, Nationalism, Political Journalism, Katkov, Aksakov, Gilyarov-Platonov, Kireev, Fadeev, Meshchersky, Filippov, Leontiev, Tikhomirov
Russia’s Present and Future in A. Solzhenitsyn’s and I. Shafarevich’s Works: “From Under the Rubble” Collection (1974) (№ 4, 2015)
The article analyzes A. Solzhenitsyn’s and I. Shafarevich’s political essays. Solzhenitsyn’s and Shafarevich’s articles, published in the “From Under the Rubble” collection, dwelt on the historical problems and development of the Russian nation.
Keywords: A. Solzhenitsyn, I. Shafarevich, “From Under the Rubble” Collection, Russian National Values, Historical Problems of the Russian Nation, Development of the Russian Nation.
“At the Walls of Chersonese”: Russian Philosophy and Crimea (№ 3, 2014)
The article includes three sketches dedicated to the eminent personalities of the Russian philosophical culture, whose lives were strongly connected with the Crimea. Writer, philosopher and publicist Konstantin Leontyev (1831–1891) took part in the Crimean military campaign of 1853–1856 as a medical officer in Kerch. He was the one who suggested creating «the uchebnitsa of natural sciences» in Nikitsky botanical garden. Nikolai Berdyaev (1874–1948) had deep existential experiences while visiting the house Evgenia Gertsyk in Sudak in 1909 and 1910. In 1914, Berdyaev’s ideological antagonist Ivan Ilyin (1883–1954), who was returning home from Germany after the beginning of World War I, happened to visit the same house. The town of Oleiz near Yalta is related to Sergei Bulgakov (1871–1944), who often stayed in the father-in-law manor. In 1909 Bulgakov lost his little son Ivan there. This event turned out to be the defining one in the thinker’s life. In 1918, Sergei Bulgakov comes back to the Crimea as a priest. There he wrote «The philosophy of name» and «The tragedy of philosophy». In the Crimea he thought about the correctness of a historiosophical choice of Russia, which resulted in the dialogues called “At the walls of Chersonese”. He was exiled from Sevastopol under the resolution of GPU in 1922, and never returned to homeland.
Keywords: life esthetic, historiosophy, landscape, intimacy, freedom, spirit, spiritual trials, imyaslavye (glorification of name), Catholicism, Bolshevism.
Konstantin Leontiev and Eurasianism. Lessons of Russian Conservatism (№ 3, 2014)
The article examines the influence that Konstantin Leontiev works had on the formation of the Eurasianism through its founders. Social conditions of Russian emigration, which determined the formation of classical Eurasianism, are characterized.
Keywords: Konstantin Leontiev, classical Eurasianism, Russian Diaspora, Russian conservatism.
“Poetic Conservatism” under Nicholas I (№ 4, 2015)
The article deals with Russian conservatism in its heyday, i.e. in the reign of Nicholas I. The article puts special emphasis on Russian classical writers and poets, such as A. Pushkin, V. Zhukovsky, F. Tyutchev, and P. Vyazemsky and their participation in the conservative movement. Their views and public life are studied within the context of the key political events of the epoch, such as the November Uprising, European revolutions of 1848–1849, Crimean War of 1853–1856 and their impact on the literary works.
Keywords: Russian Conservatism, Russian Literature, Orthodox Christianity, Monarchy, West, Russophobia, Anti-Westernism.
Russian Economic Alternatives: Conservative Approach (№ 4, 2015)
The article analyzes the approaches to Russia’s socio-economic development adopted by conservative thinkers in the late XIX – early XX centuries.
Keywords: Conservatism, Socio-Economic Development, State, Autarchy, Protectionism, Financial Reform, Factory, Agrarian Issue, Social Politics, Labour Issue.
The Birth of Russian Conservatism: Lessons of the Past (№ 3, 2014)
The report describes the specific features оf Russian conservatism in the first quarter of the XIX-th century. Russian conservatism was a reaction to the radical modernization initiated by autocracy in XVIII and at the beginning of XIX century. The author analyses the main aspects of the activity of early Russian conservatives: their centres, ideological trends, peculiarity of their views, their influence on the internal politic of Russian Empire. The study analyzes the role of conservatives in the events of 1812-1815, presented the typology of the early Russian conservatism.
Keywords: Russian conservatism, westernization, Gallomania, nationalism, “Russian Rarty”, role of conservatives in the events of 1812-1815, typology of the early Russian conservatism.
Аnti-Westernism in Early Russian Conservatism (№ 3, 2015)
The article analyzes the root causes of Russian conservatism in the early nineteenth century. Russian conservatism arose as a reaction against Gallophilia (Gallomania), a strain of Russian Westernism. Early Russian conservatism took shape amid full-scale aggression by Napoleonic France.
Keywords: Russian conservatism, Gallomania, Westernism
Conservative “Russian party” in the Early XIX century (№ 4, 2015)
The article discusses the history of the conservative “Russian party” in the early nineteenth century, its activities and attitudes of the key party members, main viewpoints, periodicals and associations.
Keywords: Early Russian Conservatism, Conservative “Russian Party”, Nikolay Karamzin, Alexander Shishkov, Fyodor Rostopchin, Sergey Glinka, Grand Duchess Ekaterina Pavlovna.
Russian Conservatism in Modern Russian Historiography (№ 4, 2015)
The article examines the key stages and characteristics of Russian conservatism in the last two decades. It also analyzes the main scientific papers on Russian conservatives.
Keywords: Historiography of Russian Conservatism, Russian Conservatism.
Russian Conservatism Searching for Party Self-Determination in the Early Twentieth Century (№ 4, 2015)
The article describes the first attempt to institutionalize Russian conservatism made by the Black Hundreds, which emerged in 1901, and the reasons for the failure in 1917.
Keywords: Russian Empire, Black Hundreds, Monarchist Organizations, Conservatism.
Conservative Liberalism in Russia the Post-reform Period: The History of a Failure (№ 4, 2015)
The article dwells on the peculiarities of Russian conservative liberalism in the second half of the 19th century and its proponents, including A. Gradovsky, K. Kavelin, and B. Chicherin. The article gives special prominence to the policies of the Russian conservative liberals at both theoretical and operative level.
Keywords: Conservative Liberalism, Liberal Nationalism, Nation-State.
Alexander I of Russia and the Holy Alliance of 1815 (№ 3, 2015)
The report interprets Emperor Alexander I’s contribution to a new world order, the Holy Alliance, which underpinned the collective security system. During his reign Petersburg was virtually the capital of Europe, and the world’s fate was decided in the Winter Palace. The expert ponders on how to account for slanders against Alexander I, which made him a most maligned figure in Russian history, and arrives at the conclusion that slanderers are resentful of the Emperor’s victory against “global revolution” and Napoleon’s totalitarian world order.
Keywords: Alexander I of Russia, Holy Alliance.
Russian Nationalists Party: Reality Without Myths (№ 4, 2015)
The study deals with the emergence of Russian National Union, a Russian moderate conservative party, in the early 20th century, and reveals the essence of its relations with P. Stolypin. The author expatiates on the peculiar party ideology of Russian nationalists and characterizes key party leaders. The paper also describes the main activities of the party in the III and IV State Duma.
Keywords: All-Russian National Union, Nationalism, Moderate Right, Progressive Block, State Duma, P. Stolypin, M. Menshikov, V. Shulgin, P. Balashov, Metropolitan Eulogius.
The Islander or Thinking about “Conjunctures of Land and Time…” (№ 1, 2015)
The paper is a survey commentary on the last book by V.L. Tsymburskiy “Conjunctures of Land and Time”.
Keywords: V.L. Tsymburskiy, review, philosophy of history, historiography
Soviet Intellectual Community Converting to Russian Conservatism (On Spontaneous Anti-Communism Untying USSR Ideological Bonds) (№ 4, 2015)
The article identifies the interdependence of conservatism, including its Russian version, and anti-communism. It focuses on the ideology of the “Russian Party”, a departure in Soviet political thinking in the 1960s-1970s. The article contains its comparative analysis with the ideology and policies of “Polish Party”, the Polish intellectual community of the 1970s-1980s leading the “Solidarity” movement. It also highlights the differences between the “Russian party” and the Sixtiers.
Keywords: Soviet Political Thinking, “Russian Party”, Conservatism, Anti-Communism, The Sixtiers, “Polish Party”.
Empire at anchor: Conservative Ideology in Russia in the Second Quarter of the Nineteenth Century (№ 4, 2015)
The article deals with the state conservative ideology in the reign of Nicholas I. Тhe article addresses the influence of ideology on the state educational policy against the background of the changing public opinion in Russia.
Keywords: Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality, State and Social Conservatism, Enlightenment, Censorship, Public Opinion.
Russia and Europe: A New Crossroads (№ 3, 2015)
The article analyses the changing concept of united Europe from the times of Napoleon Bonaparte. The author ponders on two visions of European politics and development promoted by advocates of Napoleon Bonaparte and philosophers who eschewed the Napoleonic imperial model, respectively. Moreover, the article seeks to study the current relations between Europe and Russia given the changing concept of united Europe.
Keywords: France, Napoleon Bonaparte, Pan-European idea, Napoleonic Wars, Russia and Europe, Russian-European Relations.